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CiiT International Journal of Wireless Communication
Print: ISSN 0974 9756 & Online: ISSN 0974 9640

20082009 2010 2011 2012 2013
   January February March April May June July August September October November December

Issue: March 2012
DOI: WC032012001
Title: Geographic Position Based Routing Protocol for Ad Hoc Networks
Authors: K. Gayathri Devi
Keywords: Ad Hoc Networks, Routing Algorithms, Concave Boundaries, Congestion, Looping, Link State Information, Local Minima
Abstract:
      Geographic routing is a routing principle that relies on geographic position information of the nodes in the network topology. Both the proactive and reactive protocols do not make use of the location information for routing. In General, Geographic routing encompasses a primary forwarding strategy and a secondary fall back or recovery strategy to route the packets to destination. A Geographic routing protocol called Boundary State Routing (BSR) employs two components namely Greedy-Bounded Compass forwarding, primary forwarding strategy and Boundary Mapping Protocol (BMP), a secondary recovery strategy. The main idea behind this routing protocol is that the source sends a message to the geographic location of the destination instead of using the network address. This combination together forms an improved forwarding strategy which can forward the packets around concave boundaries without looping. The Boundary Mapping Protocol is used to detect voids in the network topology and the outer boundary. Boundary Mapping Protocol also maintains the link state information for boundaries containing concave vertices in order to route the packets around local minima.

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Issue: March 2012
DOI: WC032012002
Title: Efficient and Adaptive Data Aggregation for Wireless Sensor Network
Authors: H.K. Ajai, C. Jayakumar and R. Prem Ananth
Keywords: WSN, Data Fusion, Energy Efficiency, Energy Efficiency, Data Aggregation
Abstract:
      Sensor networks are event-based systems that differ from traditional communication networks in several ways: sensor networks have severe energy constraints, redundant low-rate data, and many-to-one flows. The problem of energy-efficient reliable wireless communication in the presence of unreliable or lossy wireless link layers in multi-hop wireless networks has been a serious issue. In this paper, A novel approach for data gathering in wireless sensor networks is proposed which involves data fusion with broken Links. The number of transmissions by the sensor node is limited by approximating the sensor data at the sink using prediction Approach with buffered datasets. By adaptively using redundant transmission on fusion routes without acknowledgments, packets with more information are delivered with higher reliability. The proposed method is effective and greatly reduces the number of transmissions to the sink node which considered the compromised nodes data forwarding. That optimally solves the minimum energy reliable communication problem in presence of unreliable links.

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Issue: March 2012
DOI: WC032012003
Title: Reliable Data Reduction Approaches in WSNs: Greenhouse Plant Disease Detection as a Case Study
Authors: Mohamed O. Abdel-Aal, Rabie A. Ramadan, Ahmed A. S. Dessouki, and Mohamed Z. Abdel-Meguid
Keywords: Wireless Sensor Network, Data Reduction Technique, Reliability, Multimodal WSN, Fuzzy Logic Controller, WSN Prototype, and Exponential Smoothing Approach
Abstract:
      Wireless Sensor Networks have been used in many applications including critical applications such as battle field and health care application. It is also used in many other important applications such as in agriculture. However, such applications require special sensor treatment. Sensors need to be deployed in harsh environment and need to stay alive for long time that could be years not days.  In this paper, we propose to utilize wireless sensor networks for greenhouse monitoring against the plant diseases. A multimodal wireless sensor network is used for such purpose. Two different approaches are also proposed for saving the WSN energy including two of the prediction techniques and fuzzy logic controller. In addition, we implemented these approaches in a greenhouse application for plant disease detection. Extensive experiments are conducted to test the performance of the proposed agents.

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Issue: March 2012
DOI: WC032012004
Title: Selective Flooding based Improved AODV Routing Protocol in MANETs: Analysis & Implementation

Authors: Mahesh Kumar Yadav, Ram Kishan Khola and Deepak Dembla
Keywords: MANET, AODV, Broadcast, MANETs, GloMoSim, Collision Rate, Mobility, Route Discovery
Abstract:
     A mobile adhoc network (MANET) is a self-configuring network that can have an arbitrary topology along the time. Each mobile host works as a router and it is free to move randomly and connect to other hosts arbitrarily. Thus, the network topology can change quickly and unpredictably since there may exist a large number of independent ad hoc connections. The default mechanism of route discovery in MANETs is flooding.  The routing overheads caused because of broadcasting is a bottleneck in performance of AODV protocol. In this paper, improved AODV protocol is proposed, analyzed and implemented that follows an efficient method of route discovery which adjusts itself dynamically based on the network density of MANET. The proposed algorithm is analyzed in GloMoSim environment and implemented on base protocol as AODV. The simulation results show that improved-AODV (I-AODV) protocol significantly reduces the no. of rebroadcasts and hence reduces the routing overheads caused due to broadcast storm in the network. The results show great improvements over simple AODV protocol, in terms of performance measures such as routing overheads, collisions rate, end to end delay, no. of broadcast requests etc. hence solves the broadcast bottleneck in AODV protocol.

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Issue: March 2012
DOI: WC032012005
Title: Queuing Delay Analysis in Wireless Networks
Authors: K. Malarvizhi and Dr.L.S. Jayashree
Keywords: Low Complexity and Distributed Algorithms, Queuing Analysis, Multi-Hop Wireless Networks, Lower and Upper Bounds, Maximal Matching, Queuing Delay
Abstract:
      The wireless networks provides Best Effort of Service. Traffic analysis is processed as quickly as possible, but there is no guarantee of timelines or actual delivery due to delay. The medium access layer (MAC) is needed to schedule the links carefully so that packets can be transmitted with minimal collisions. Many scheduling policies have been studied at the MAC layer with the objective of maximizing throughput and reducing delay. These schemes are often called throughput optimal scheduling schemes. We will analyze the delay performance in multi-hop wireless networks. In the MAC layer the delay estimation is at the lower and upper bounds of the queue using queuing analysis. This paper focuses only a comparison of  queuing delay analysis in wireless networks using various well known queuing techniques and also extend to identify the low complexity distributed scheduling algorithm for multi-hop wireless networks.

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Issue: March 2012
DOI: WC032012006
Title: Toxic Gases Monitoring System based on GPRS and Zigbee Wireless Sensor Networks to Prevent Climate Change
Authors: S. Karthigaiveni, S. Murugeswaran and S.P. Ramya
Keywords: GPRS, Monitoring Centre, Toxic Gases, Zigbee
Abstract:
     Wireless sensor networks have successfully been deployed in different fields for various applications including habitat monitoring, environmental monitoring, structural monitoring, health monitoring and more. In this paper   toxic gases like carbon monoxide, methane and hydrogen sulphide from vehicles are monitored using gas sensors. The information from the sensors are collected by Zigbee wireless network and then transmitted to the remote file transfer protocol (FTP) server with public network IP on the internet through General packet radio service (GPRS) network by GPRS module which is controlled by coordinator node. The monitoring center gets the data and analyses the toxic gases for various fuels used in automobiles. Results are provided for relative experts and decision makers.

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Issue: March 2012
DOI: WC032012007
Title: Comparative Investigation of Metrics for a Web Client in Wireless Environment
Authors: R.S. Sawhney, Rajan Vohra, Manmeet Kaur Khurana and Sunandika Mann
Keywords: Load Balancing, Media Access Delay, Task Processing Time, Response Time
Abstract:
      The widespread reliance on networking and Internet applications created a need for a technology that provides reasonable speed, access anywhere and a most cost effective solution. We have introduced the OPNETTM network simulation as a primary tool for network simulation. Guru Nanak Dev University campus network has been taken as reference model.  The scenarios implemented include two types of applications (Database and FTP) in two different sites each comprising of 20 users and results indicate that response time and Task processing time are highly affected by the number of users per application with and without load balancing.

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Issue: March 2012
DOI: WC032012008
Title: Wireless Sensor Network for Surveillance using a Multichannel Multi-Radio Approach
Authors: Jaya Raut and Pallavi Joshi
Keywords: Wireless Sensor Network, MPEG 4, Video Transmission, Zigbee, IEEE 802.15.4
Abstract:
     In wireless video sensor network, multiple source data transmission is a challenging task because of the high bandwidth demand of video frames. The IEEE 802.15.4 standard is designed for low data rate, low power consumption and low cost wireless personal area networks (WPANs). Video transmission over such type of networks is considered an issue because video sources requires high data rates. Wireless standards, including IEEE 802.15.4, is use a multiple nonoverlapped channels that exist in the 2.4GHz spectrum. The average throughput of these networks can be imcreased by using multiple channels that are available in the radio spectrum allocated by the standards. The main importance of this paper is to improve the Zigbee networks under the interference of 802.15.4 and 802.11 devices using multiple channels and multiple radio interfaces so that video transmission is reliable.

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Issue: March 2012
DOI: WC032012009
Title: Encryption of Video Streaming with Optimized Energy in WSN
Authors: S. Sudha
Keywords: Cross Layer Approach, Resource Allocation, Video Selective Encryption, Wireless Sensor Network
Abstract:
     Selective encryption for video streaming was proposed for efficient multimedia content protection. In this paper, we propose a scheme to optimize the energy, distortion, and encryption performance of video streaming in WSNs. However, previous works were focused on providing security for a single image only, without considering the temporal correlation and dependency among multiple pictures in a video sequence. The motion estimation/compensation and the residue coding from the inter-frame video compression have a great potential to further improve the efficiency of encryption and network resource allocation in WSNs.
This paper proposes a new WSN-based secure multimedia communication framework to enhance video transmission quality, reduces energy consumption, and guarantee security. Due to the limitation of computing and energy resource, selective encryption and resource allocation naturally fits well to WSN for two reasons.
First, selective encryption significantly reduces computational load by only controlling a tiny portion of the position information in multimedia stream structure. The magnitude information is useless in decryption without correct position information in the bit stream. Second, WSN has extremely limited energy resource which requires high communication energy efficiency by UEP-based WSN resource allocation.
Simulation experiments demonstrate that the proposed joint selective encryption and resource allocation scheme can improve the video transmission quality significantly with guaranteed content protection and energy efficiency.

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Issue: March 2012
DOI: WC032012010
Title: Performance Evaluation of WEP with CRC32 and MD5 using NS2 Simulator
Authors: Mandeep Kumar
Keywords: WEP, CRC32, MD5, EAPOL, AODV, EED, PDF
Abstract:
     The wireless LANs (WLANs) have become more prevalent and are widely deployed  in many places such as corporate office Conference rooms, industrial warehouses, campus, residences, cafe etc. The IEEE 802.11-based WLAN presents new challenges for network administrators and information security administrators. The security of a WLAN is very important, especially for applications hosting valuable information.. This work critically reviews main security flaws of WEP, including short IV, key reuse, poor key management and suggests a new approach of automatic key management and refreshing of WEP key so that attacker could not have sufficient time to guess the key . By replacing the CRC32 With the MD5 Hash Function to enhance the Security of WLAN's and data integrity. In this current work we are implementing the MD5 Hash technique in the WEP and securing the data from  the dictionary attack.

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Issue: March 2012
DOI: WC032012011
Title: Design of Zigbee based Wireless Sensor Network for Early Flood Monitoring and Warning System
Authors: A.R. Jadhav and D.Y. Sakhare
Keywords: GSM, GUI, SMS, WSN, Zigbee
Abstract:
     This paper proposes architecture for an early flood monitoring and warning system to alert public against flood disasters. The frequent occurrence of flood causes great harm to people's lives and properties. The proposed warning system is developed with the objectives to gather environmental information, and based on the collected data, alert the authorities and the population at risk autonomously. This project focuses on monitoring water level remotely using wireless sensor network (WSN).  It also utilizes Zigbee network, Global System for Mobile communication (GSM) and Short Message Service (SMS).The system measures water level through wireless sensor nodes. The information is sent to the base station using Zigbee protocol. Data received from each node is stored in the database of the monitoring centre. In critical condition, early-warning SMS is forwarded to alert the victims using GSM technology. Microsoft Visual Basic 6.0 is used to implement the software. Based on GUI provided, administrative departments can take effective measures. The proposed architecture can be beneficial to the community and act as a precautionary action to save lives in the case of flood disaster.

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Issue: March 2012
DOI: WC032012012
Title: An Approach to Node Elevated Repositioning Technique for Geocast Routing Protocol in MANETs
Authors: E.J. Yamini and B. Arunkumar
Keywords: Central Distance, Greedy Technique, Location Update, Reposition
Abstract:
     Geocasting is done for the packet transmission within a particular region called geocast region. Geoaddressing and retransmissions are based on some local decision rules especially in Manets. In this paper, along with central distance calculation and priority queuing, the region based location routing method is introduced for scalability and drop rate reduction purposes. Here the automatic updating of location is done by individual nodes when it has a change in its location. The GPSN technology with node elevated repositioning is utilised here to improve the network scalability and deals with the node mobility problems and irregular topology. In previous works, the central region alone is considered for transmitting packets and the nodes are not much aware of all mobile neighbouring nodes location since each node follows the greedy transmission method leads to complexity in large networks. This method overcomes, when a node need not flows through central region and if every node knows well about their neighbour’s location.

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Issue: March 2012
DOI: WC032012013
Title: QoS Routing Discovery Protocol for Real Time Traffic in MANET
Authors: P. Sivakumar and Dr.K. Duraiswamy
Keywords: Mobile Ad Hoc Network, Quality of Service, Real Time Traffic, Routing Discovery Protocol, Source-Destination Pair
Abstract:
     Mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a collection of wireless mobile nodes or routers dynamically forming a temporary network without the use of any existing infrastructure or centralized administration and it has to face many challenges in real time multimedia communication. The quality of service (QoS) Constraints such as bandwidth and delay make the routing of MANET for real time traffic is a tedious task. This paper proposes to develop a QoS routing discovery protocol for real time traffic in mobile ad hoc network. This technique involves construction of bandwidth and delay aware paths between a source-destination pair. Initially the bandwidth availability and expected delay are estimated for each path and the source selects the best path with maximum bandwidth and minimal delay. We use the NS2 simulator on Linux operating system to shows the performance based on the throughput, packet delivery ratio and average end-to-end delay metrics.

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Issue: March 2012
DOI: WC032012014
Title: Behavioral Analysis of Selfish node in WSN
Authors: Vivek Deshpande, Dr.J.B. Helonde and Dr. Vijay Wadhai
Keywords: Selfish Node, Wireless Sensor Networks
Abstract:
     Each node in Wireless Sensor Networks can communicate directly with other nodes in its radio communication range. If the destination node is not within the transmission range of the source node, the source node takes help of the intermediate nodes to communicate with the destination node by relaying the messages hop by hop. Hence the mutual cooperation and contribution of packet forwarding among the nodes in the network is needed. However, since the sensor nodes in this network are constrained with limited resources, such as CPU, battery, channel bandwidth and etc, some nodes in the network might not be willing to cooperate for the packet transmission, in order to save their resources. Each node has the goal to maximize its own benefits by enjoying network services and at the same time minimizing its contribution, so nodes may tend to be selfish. A selfish node does not intend to directly damage other nodes, but is unwilling to spend battery life, CPU cycles, or available network bandwidth to forward packets not of direct interest to it, even though it expects others to forward packets on its behalf. Consequently, cooperative behavior, such as unconditionally forwarding packets for others, cannot be taken for granted. The selfish behavior can significantly damage network performance.

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Issue: March 2012
DOI: WC032012015
Title: Superior Routing Protocol for MANET
Authors: A. Ramachandran, A. Sathiyaraj and S. Ramachandran
Keywords: Mobile Ad Hoc Networks; Quality-Of-Service; Capacity Estimation; Admission Control; Channel Utilization, Delay; Contention Delay; Contention Area; Re-Sequencing Delay; Node-Disjoint Paths
Abstract:
     Mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) are swiftly evolving and the notion of ad hoc networking has become one of the most challenging research areas of wireless communications. The rising popularity of real-time applications among end users in MANETs has stimulated a surge of research in routing and providing quality of service (QOS) support in such networks. A number of schemes have been previously proposed to end to end delay and estimate outstanding capacity. The outstanding capacity that is derived from window-based measurements of channel estimation and the end to end delay multiple node-disjoint paths are examined for satisfying QOS in terms of end-to-end delay .In this paper, a new routing protocol (SRP) proposed. It considering outstanding Capacity estimation and End to end delay is a key component of any admission control scheme in MANETs. The novel part of this scheme is a simple additional mechanism to estimate residual capacity delay in IEEE 802.11-based ad hoc networks.

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Issue: March 2012
DOI: WC032012016
Title: Bluetooth Enabled Mobile Application for HVAC Device Access
Authors: Kavita Sultanpure, Jayashree Jagdale, Nishant Chavan, V.S. Deshpande and Dr. Shyamkant Kulkarni
Keywords: Bluetooth, Mobile Phone, Thermostat, HVAC device, J2ME
Abstract:
      Most of the home appliance companies primarily develop components for Heating Ventilation and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) Systems like Thermostats, Furnace Controls, etc. These components communicate with each other either via relay signaling or using communication protocols like the CT-485. Home appliances such as security and climate control systems have become more advanced with the recent improvements in microcontrollers and wireless technologies such as Bluetooth. And most of the companies have taken advantage of this in recent years with the development of Bluetooth enabled thermostat.
This work addresses the problem of automatic control of HVAC devices and issues related to development of suitable software for controlling the heating processes using wireless and mobile technologies. For that purpose this work make use of non traditional method of control viz use of Mobile Phone. This work concerns the mobile phone based application that could communicate with Bluetooth enabled Thermostat and it could be used to fetch data from the device and also set parameters or send control signal in the other direction.

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Issue: March 2012
DOI: WC032012017
Title: IEEE 802.21 Media Independent Handover Mechanism for Heterogeneous Networks
Authors: S. Tamilselvan and C. Tamizhselvan
Keywords: Media Independent Handover (MIH), HNE, HTCE, Vertical Handover
Abstract:
     Nowadays the demand for various multimedia services requiring high capacity increases, shortage of wireless resources becomes a serious problem in cellular networks. It is difficult to suddenly increase the capacity of current wireless communication networks because of high cost and complexity. In order to increase the capacity of wireless communication networks with minor changes and low cost, internetworking is needed.

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Issue: March 2012
DOI: WC032012018
Title: A Comparative Study of Unicast, Multicast and Geocast Protocols with CD-P Heuristic for MANET
Authors: Cuckoo John Varghese and R. Hema
Keywords: Geocast Routing Protocol, Multicast Routing Protocol, Priority, Unicast Routing Protocol, Zone of Relevance
Abstract:
     The Mobile Ad-hoc Network is a wireless mesh network that is capable of transferring packets within the hosts connected to the network. It lacks an infrastructure, so it makes the system vulnerable as well as flexible. The self reconfigurable network is built up with nodes that are connected to the wireless links, making the transfer of packets possible in the dynamic topology whereas the mobile nodes make the route change. The nodes can be rapidly deployed in the network even for the rapidly changing network conditions. The MANETs are implemented in various application scenarios that include military applications, personal networking areas such as laptops, cell phones, civilian environments, conferences, boats, sports stadiums in small aircrafts and so on. Above all these, MANETs are used for the networks that work more effectively in emergency operations such as search and rescue, firefighting etc. Mobility and multihop are the basic characteristics of the network. There are various protocols supporting the mobile ad hoc networks. This paper shows the comparative study of the unicast, multicast and geocast protocols that is implemented with a heuristic called centre distance priority heuristic, which allows a better scaling on the retransmissions of the packets by providing a priority based queuing system for the hosts inside the network. The geocast system is implemented with the criterion for fixing the zone of relevance that makes the system much more efficient in transmission of packets. AODV protocol is a reactive protocol implemented in common for all the cases.  Different parameters are plotted during simulation, comparing the three protocols on the network and the simulation results are graphically represented.

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Issue: March 2012
DOI: WC032012019
Title: Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing for Wireless Networks
Authors: B. Mohammed Nawaz
Keywords: Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM), SIMULINK, Synchronization
Abstract:
     Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing(OFDM) is one of the multicarrier technique that establish the transmission of data using number of subcarriers which enable high data rate due to the optimal usage of band width. The OFDM is the 5-GHz standard gives a speed up to 54Mbps in 802.11a as compare to other multicarrier technique .This paper implement the transceiver model and simulated using SIMULINK   software according to the standard parameter, then evaluated performance. To improve the system performance some consideration is taken to reduce disadvantages, forward error correction coding, synchronization and channel estimation and detection which results the high speed transmission along wireless network .Also analyze the level of application.

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Issue: March 2012
DOI: WC032012020
Title: Literature Survey for Source Localization in Wireless Sensor Networks
Authors: T.M. Reena Sughi and P. Kannan
Keywords: TOA, TDOA, Received Signal Strength, Positioning Algorithms, Shadow Fading
Abstract:
     Source localization is one of the major problems in many areas such as radar, sonar, telecommunications, mobile communications and sensor networks. For this process, many positioning algorithms have been proposed. Those techniques used some relative information of the source. But, the exact location of the source can not be found using the existing methods, when the source is in the moving condition. Recently a new technique called Linear Least Squares Approach is proposed, which provides a better accurate solution. This literature survey discusses all the existing source localization algorithms and their performance.

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