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CiiT International Journal of Wireless Communication
Print: ISSN 0974 9756 & Online: ISSN 0974 9640

20082009 2010 2011 2012 2013
   January February March April May June July August September October November December

Issue: April 2012
DOI: WC042012001
Title: A Survey on Reactive Adhoc Routing Protocols in MANET Networks
Authors: Vishal Sharma, Mandip Kaur, Vijay Banga and Harsukhpreet Singh
Keywords: AODV, DSR, MANET, TORA
Abstract:
      Mobile Adhoc Networks (MANETs), a rapidly deployed wireless network that uses multi-hop routing instead of static network infrastructure to provide network connectivity, have received increasing research attention in recent years because of its vast applications in dynamic military and civilian systems. Variations with time in network topology impose new challenges for routing protocols in such networks as traditional routing protocols are not suitable for MANETs. Researchers are working together to design a new improved routing protocol by comparing and improving existing MANET’s routing protocols before any routing protocol is standardized. In this paper, an effort has been made to ascertain the comprehensive performance evaluation of three commonly used mobile ad-hoc routing protocols such as Dynamic Source Routing (DSR), Temporally ordered routing algorithm (TORA) and Adhoc On-demand Distance-Vector Protocol (ADOV). Our works reports that the performance of different routing protocols varies according to different application situations as AODV performs better than TORA in high mobility situation while DSR outperforms in less stressful situations.

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Issue: April 2012
DOI: WC042012002
Title: Utilizing a Multimodal Wireless Node Features for the Benefit of WSN Lifetime
Authors: F. Medhat, R. Ramadan and I. Talkhan
Keywords: Clustering, Fuzzy C-Means, LEACH-C, Multimodal
Abstract:
      Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) is considered nowadays as one of the promising research areas due to the wide variety of applications that it can serve.  WSNs attracted many of the researchers as well as industry towards devising methods to increase the stability, longevity and functionality that could be delivered by WSN.  WSN could be used to detect motion, temperature and humidity, which allow them to be used in e.g. security applications, weather monitoring just to name a few. The network consists of lightweight portable nodes that are deployed in a huge number with a built-in power source normally a battery. Recharging operation to these nodes could be considered impossible due to the large number of deployed nodes and the difficulty to have access to the nodes after deployment. This required efficient usage of the available power resources which directed researcher to devise algorithms and methods by which the power consumption is minimized; one of these methods is clustering. Clustering is a technique that is used in a number of fields like image processing and data analysis. It has been adapted to WSN to serve the specific characteristics of WSN. Several algorithms have been proposed specifically for WSN but the proposed algorithms didn’t consider the ability of the node to sense more than one parameter e.g. temperature and humidity. In our work we have considered the idea of using Fuzzy C-Means (FCM), which is clustering algorithms, that allows a node to be assigned to more than one group with different membership percentage. We used FCM with applying our proposed algorithms, which showed a clear outperformance of FCM using our proposed algorithms over Leach-C, which is a clustering algorithm specially designed for WSN.

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Issue: April 2012
DOI: WC042012003
Title: Internet Connectivity in Mobile Ad Hoc Network Using MPRAODV Routing Protocol
Authors: M. Geetha and Dr.R. Umarani 
Keywords: MANET, AODV, MPR, Gateway, Adhoc Internet Connectivity
Abstract:
      Mobile node is a collection of mobile nodes which forms a temporary network. Some of the nodes in an ad hoc network may want access to an external network, such as internet. Different mechanisms have been proposed to integrate MANETs and the Internet[10][11]. These mechanisms are differing based on gateway discovery mechanism, and Adhoc routing protocol[13][16]. When MANET is connected to the Internet, it is important for the mobile nodes to detect an available gateway providing an access to the Internet. The objective of this paper is based on Mobile Ad-hoc Network (MANET) routing protocols used in gateways. AODV[1] is one of the most popular routing protocols for ad-hoc networks; it uses the flooding technique for locating the destinations, and gateway, possibly cause an overhead in the network. To overcome this problem we have introduced the MPR (Multi Point Relay) algorithm [2][9] in the AODV protocol in order to reduce the number of messages broadcasted during the flooding phase and also the MPRAODV protocol uses the hybrid approach to find out the gateway[14][15]. The extended AODV (MPRAODV) using MPR reduces the overhead and enhances the packet delivery performance.

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Issue: April 2012
DOI: WC042012004
Title: Analyzing the Influential Parameters of Planar Inverted F Antenna for Mobile Handset

Authors: Jacob Abraham and Dr. Thomaskutty Mathew
Keywords: Mircrostrip, PIFA, Multi Band Operations
Abstract:
     Microstrip antennas have attracted a lot of attention due to rapid growth in communications area. Several patch designs with single feed, dual frequency operation have been proposed recently. This paper tries to explain the limitation of microstrip antennas in multiband operations and also explains the need of having planar inverted F antenna. The papers analysis the importance of variations in dimensions of planar inverted F antenna. Simulations are done to understand the operational changes that occurs due to slight variations in antenna dimensions. From the study it can be understand that a slight variation in dimension of any key parameter will influence the working of mobile hand set.

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Issue: April 2012
DOI: WC042012005
Title: Traffic Aware Relay Node Lifetime for Data Collection in Wireless Sensor Networks
Authors: S. Gowthami and B. Arunkumar
Keywords: Heuristic Algorithm, Relay Node Lifetime, Relay Node Placement, Wireless Sensor Networks
Abstract:
      For data collection in various environments the wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is used. In that the sensor nodes are randomly deployed in large quantity, there is a broad range of applications supporting manual deployment.  The sensors collect the raw data and forward to a remote base station (the sink) through a series of relay nodes. In the wireless communication environment, the operation time of a relay node depends on its traffic volume and communication range. Relay nodes are battery-limited. To get the maximum network lifetime, the location of the relay node have to be carefully planned. The deployment is ensure connectivity between the data sources and the sink, and  also hold the heterogeneous traffic flows from different sources and the dominating many-to-one traffic pattern. For the simple case of one source node, both with single and multiple traffic flows produce the optimal solutions. However, the general form of the deployment problem is difficult, and the existing connectivity-guaranteed solutions cannot be directly applied here. The problem is then transformed into a generalized version of the Euclidean Steiner Minimum Tree problem (ESMT). Solution is in continuous space and may yield fractional numbers of relay nodes, where simple rounding of the solution can lead to poor performance. Thus the algorithms are developed for discrete relay node assignment, together with local adjustments. It yields the high-quality practical solutions. The solution has been evaluated through both numerical analysis and ns-2 simulations and compared with state-of-the-art approaches. Traffic unaware strategies achieves up to 6 to 14 times improvement on the network lifetime.

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Issue: April 2012
DOI: WC042012006
Title: Secure Key Distribution for Large and Dynamic Multicast Groups
Authors: G. Murali, G. Gurivi Reddy, Y. Srinivasulu and N. Priyanka
Keywords: Hierarchal Tree, Key Distribution, Large Multicast Groups, Security
Abstract:
     To provide security in multicasting groups which is one of most challenging issue in network security and these are the vulnerable attacks. In large multicasting groups the addition and deletion process are occur alternatively which makes to provide security. In the literature, the most of the proposed schemes are suffered from collision problems, scalability problems and 1-affect-all problems. Group key should be changed and distributed efficiently and securely within the function, whenever function lists changes.
The key-distribution (KD) problem is one of the main role in large groups. Efficient key distribution is one of the solutions in large multicast groups.
In this paper, an efficient security to the group key is involved in large multicasting groups than the previously developed. A hierarchal tree is proposed here with each node as group member.
The main advantags of this approach are eless storage of keys for each member function, the sponsor node selection can be reduced during addition and deletion which takes less computations and the tree size is minimum than the previous methods.

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Issue: April 2012
DOI: WC042012007
Title: End to End Security for Mobile Application
Authors: G. Murali, C. Adi Pavan Kumar Redddy, G.V.N. Swetha and P. Bharath Kumar
Keywords: J2ME, Rijndael, SHA1, MIDP
Abstract:
      Today many transactions and information exchange are being carried out using mobile devices and mobile networks. This leads to transfer of real or perceived value in exchange for information, services, or goods. Security is an essential and important factor for various transactions Sensitive data from a mobile application needs to be delivered to the server carefully without being disclosing the data to other parties. In this paper, an end-to-end application-layer security solution for mobile devices using the Java 2 Platform Micro Edition (J2ME) is proposed. The proposed solution uses pure Java components to provide end-to-end client authentication and data confidentiality between wirelesses clients (mobile devices) and servers. Rijndael is used for encryption and SHA1 is used for calculating the message digest.  This solution can be implemented with limited resources of a mobile device. There is no need of modifying the underlying protocols or wireless network infrastructure. . We develop a mobile application to check our solution. The mobile application connects to the server and exchanges data with the server. The data sent to the server is encrypted using a key and the server having the same key uses it for decrypting the data and getting the original data. In this paper, we provide a solution for mobile client authentication with the server and confidentiality of data. The mobile application can be run on a Java compatible phone with GPRS facility, so that it can connect to the server.

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Issue: April 2012
DOI: WC042012008
Title: Self-Reconfigurable Wireless Mesh Network
Authors: Biswa Ranjan Panda, A. Pandian and J. Venkata Subramanian
Abstract:
     During their lifetime, multihop wireless mesh networks (WMNs) experience frequent link failures caused by channel interference, dynamic obstacles, and/or applications’ bandwidth demands. These failures cause severe performance degradation in WMNs or require expensive manual network management for their real-time recovery. This paper presents an autonomous network reconfiguration system (ARS) that enables a multiradio WMN to autonomously recover from local link failures to preserve network performance. By using channel and radio diversities in WMNs, ARS generates necessary changes in local radio and channel assignments in order to recover from failures. Next, based on the thus-generated configuration changes, the system cooperatively reconfigures network settings among local mesh routers. ARS has been implemented and evaluated extensively on our IEEE 802.11-based WMN test-bed as well as through ns2-based simulation. Our evaluation results show that ARS outperforms existing failure-recovery schemes in improving channel-efficiency by more than 90% and in the ability of meeting the applications’ bandwidth demands by an average of 200%.

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Issue: April 2012
DOI: WC042012009
Title: Spectrum Management in Cognitive Radio Networks Using Fuzzy Logic and ANFIS
Authors: Mansi Subhedar and Gajanan Birajdar
Keywords: Radio Resource Utilization, Cognitive Radio, Fuzzy Logic System, ANFIS
Abstract:
     Cognitive radio, built on software defined radio (SDR) is an intelligent radio technology that updates its operating parameters to locate the unused spectrum segments. To achieve better spectrum utilization, assignment of spectrum allotted to primary user to secondary user when it is unused is essential. To assign these vacant bands to unlicensed users without causing harmful interference to licensed users, a novel approach is proposed based on fuzzy logic and ANFIS. Fuzzy Logic and ANFIS (Adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system) models are developed and compared. These models make use of secondary user parameters such as signal strength, distance between the primary and secondary user, spectrum utilization efficiency and degree of mobility. 81 fuzzy rules are used for decision making, indicating the possibilities of access to secondary user. Better choice can be made regarding the suitable secondary user to whom spectrum can be allotted for user when primary user is not using it.

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Issue: April 2012
DOI: WC042012010
Title: Design of a CMOS Parallel Counter with Improved Operating Frequency
Authors: Sara Paul and B. Sivasankari
Keywords: Architecture Design, High Performance Counter Design, Parallel Counter Design, Pipeline Counter Design
Abstract:
     Counters are one among the basic building block in every digital system. It is an essential building block for a variety of circuit operations such as programmable frequency dividers, shifters, code generators and various arithmetic operations. Since these fundamental operations comprises of many applications main focus is for an efficient counter design. In this paper a new parallel counter is designed that achieve high operating frequency. The high operating frequency is achieved by pipeline partitioning methodology which consists of a counting path and a state look ahead. The counting path’s counting  logic controls counting operations and it consist of 2-bit counting modules. State look ahead path’s state look ahead logic anticipates the future states and thus prepares the counting path for these future states. In this counter architecture there are three simple repeated CMOS logic modules types: an initial module generates anticipated counting states for higher significant bit modules through state look-ahead path, simple D-type flip-flops and 2-bit counters. The state look-ahead path prepares the counting paths next counter state with respect to clock. The clock edge triggers all modules simultaneously thus concurrently updating the current state with a uniform delay with all counting modules. Here, as an example a 8-bit counter is designed with the pipeline partitioning methodology and is simulated by DSCH & Microwind tool. The structure is scalable to arbitrary N-bit counters using the three module types.

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Issue: April 2012
DOI: WC042012011
Title: Intelligent Mobile Home Theft Monitoring System
Authors: J. Venkata Subramanian, A. Pandian and M. Manikandan
Keywords: Mobile Computing, RTP, JMF, Android
Abstract:
     Monitoring system is repeatedly mentioned as one of the main application areas for mobile computing. it is the application of mobile computing technologies for improving communication among moitoring place, home, industrial, organization, in this place using the application .As mobile devices have become part of our like it can integrate more seamlessly to our everyday life. It enables the delivery of mobile video anytime, anywhere by means of mobile devices. it is paper proposed monitoring house by using web camera and we are retrieving content from the web camera to mobile. Here we are using android OS mobile .JMF is used for getting the attributes of video and the attributes should be adjustable depends on network speed. A media server is used to fetch that information from web camera, for that we approach which takes into account that changing illumination video from camera to server and server to mobile. By this system we can monitor our house at any time.

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Issue: April 2012
DOI: WC042012012
Title: Cross Layer information in MANETs: Why and How?
Authors: K. Ponmozhi and R.S. Rajesh
Keywords: Cross Layer, Mobile Ad hoc Networks
Abstract:
     Traffic carried by wireless networks may be a mix of real-time traffic such as voice, multimedia, messaging and file transfer and applications on them requires service/resource sharing. Each application will require varying and very diverse QoS guarantees.  The cross layer design can potentially solve some of these problems in wireless communication and thus the provisioning of QoS level required by the applications. Layering of MANETs may be violated in order to implement autonomic behavior such as service provisioning. This cross layering depends on correlating data from various layers to identify major and relevant events related to the application design requirements. We proposed cross layer which lies between the application and the lower layers also it spans across the other layers vertically. In this paper the mechanism for accessing the cross layer information has been proposed and predictors to predict the event happening based on the collected data. The application or the other layers can access these values and do adaptation to the existing environment by subscribing to the needed predictors. We designed predictors namely data rate predictor, Bandwidth estimator, and Link qualification. To show case our design the routing algorithm has changed to take in to consideration of the link, and SNR which shows better result.

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Issue: April 2012
DOI: WC042012013
Title: Multi-hop Cluster based Routing Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks
Authors: P. Ramesh, Dr.M. Sailaja and S. Koteswararao
Keywords: Wireless Sensor Networks, Gateway Node, Energy Efficient, Cluster Head, Multi-hop Clustering
Abstract:
     A novel approach for  prolonging the lifetime of a wireless sensor network using clustering routing protocol  while maintaining desired quality of service attributes related to sensed data delivery is presented. This paper proposes a Multi-hop Cluster based Routing Protocol for long range transmission in wireless sensor network. The protocol consists of two parts, one is with respect to cluster management in sensor area and the other is about the data transmission between base station and the sensor area.The new clustering and routing algorithm’s scale well and converge fast for large scale dynamic sensors as shown by our extensive results using the Network Simulator (NS2). It is a flexible tool for network engineers to vestigate how various protocols perform with different Configurations and topologies. Simulation results shows that the proposed protocol offers a better performance than single-hop clustering routing protocols in terms of network lifetime and energy consumption when the base station is located far away from the sensing area.

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Issue: April 2012
DOI: WC042012014
Title: Improving MAC Layer Fairness in Multi-Hop and Communication Network for VANET
Authors: D.P. Choudhari and Dr.S.S. Dorle
Keywords: Multi-hop Networks, DCF, Throughput, CSMA/CA
Abstract:
     The IEEE 802.11 is a standard for wireless LANS and wireless multi-hop adhoc networks. But the fact is that the performance of IEEE 802.11 drops dramatically in terms of throughput and delay as the network traffic goes up particularly when the station reaches to the saturation state. IEEE 802.11 supports two modes of operation: Distributed Coordination Function (DCF) and Point Coordination Function (PCF).This paper presents the unfairness of IEEE 802.11 protocol when deployed in multi-hop networks scenario. The basic method to access IEEE 802.11 MAC Layer is DCF mode and it is based on CSMA/CA. In this paper we have shown that by the use of simple distributed algorithm that can be placed in this case to approximate ideal scheduler like round robin so as to provide the fair access to all flows in the network. So from the results of simulation it is clear that this approach proves to be best on the fairness standard. In addition by reducing the number of collisions we have also increased the throughput.

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Issue: April 2012
DOI: WC042012015
Title: Study of Different Routing Protocols in Wireless Sensor Network
Authors: Geetu Verma
Keywords: Wireless Sensor Networks, Routing Protocols, Network Structure
Abstract:
     A wireless sensor network is a collection of nodes organized into a cooperative network. Each node consists of processing capability (one or more microcontrollers, CPUs), may contain multiple types of memory (program, data and flash memories), have a RF transceiver, have a power source (e.g., solar cells), and accommodate various sensors and actuators. The nodes communicate wirelessly and often self-organize after being deployed in an ad hoc fashion. Systems of 1000s or even 10,000 nodes are anticipated. Such systems can revolutionize the way we live and work. This paper describe the different routing protocols in WSN.

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Issue: April 2012
DOI: WC042012016
Title: Effect of Variable Thickness for Different Substrates on Rectangular Patch Antenna at 3 GHz
Authors: Amish Kumar Jha and Bharti Gupta
Keywords: Rectangular Patch Antenna, Feko EM Solution, Quarts, VSWR, Glass PTFE, Inset Feed, Poly Guide
Abstract:
     The microstrip patch antenna is one of the most preferred antenna structure for low cost and compact design wireless system and RF application. In this paper, various design are suggested and analysed for different height of different substrates for rectangular patch antenna (RPA) operating at 3 GHz as centre frequency. Using transmission-line model, analysis was done for the behaviour of the antenna for different types of substrates, modified thickness, patch geometries and shifted feeding point. This design of RPA is made to several dielectric materials for different thickness and the selection is based upon which material gives a better antenna performance with reduced surface wave loss. The result shows that Polyguide and RT Duroid 5880 for the thickness of 2.7 mm are the best materials for proposed design to achieve an enhanced Bandwidth (BW) and better gain with lower value of VSWR. The characteristic of the patch antenna are analysed by the MOM using Feko EM solution software version 6.0.

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Issue: April 2012
DOI: WC042012017
Title: Novel Security in Client Server Using Job Scheduling with Queuing Petri Net and Bulk Service Model
Authors: V.B. Kirubanand and Dr.S. Palaniammal
Keywords: Client Server, Wired and Wireless Devices, Queuing Petri Net, Job Scheduling, Markov Model
Abstract:
     Communication across a network is increasingly important in the work environment. Similar to processors or disks of the system, the behavior of the network has an impact on the operation of the computer. Network devices have become a ubiquitous fixture in the modern home and corporate networks as well as in the global communication infrastructure. Devices like Hub, Switch, Bluetooth, Wifi and Wimax reside on the same networks as the personal computers and enterprise servers and together form the world-wide communication infrastructure. To fully appreciate the scope and scale of such devices it is required to move beyond analysis of individual devices and their vulnerabilities. The analysis of such devices and the performance impact of a network are taken as the research work. This has been done using the   queuing network, Job scheduling, petri nets and Markov model.

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